Matter is anything which has mass and takes up space. There are three states of matter, solid, liquid, and gas.

  • Solid – definite shape, definite volume, does not flow. Particles vibrate only.
  • Liquid – no definite shape, definite volume, can flow. Particles slide over each other.
  • Gas – no shape, no definite volume, can be compressed. Particles are move freely.

Changes of state due to heating.

  • Melting happens when a solid is heated until it becomes a liquid.
  • Evaporation happens when a liquid becomes a gas on the surface only.
  • Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas throughout the whole liquid.

Changes of state due to cooling.

  • Freezing happens when a liquid is cooled until it becomes a solid.
  • Condensation happens when a gas is cooled until it becomes a liquid.

Experiment: To separate salt and water (by evaporation)

Boil the salty water until the basin is almost dry. Turn off the Bunsen and allow the hot basin to sit. The remaining water should evaporate off, leaving the salt in the basin.

1. Dissolve the sand and salt in water in a beaker.
2. Filter off the sand.
3. Then boil off the water in an evaporating dish.

Experiment :To separate soil and water by filtration

Experiment : To separate copper sulfate from water

Place the copper sulphate solution in the round-bottom flask.
Heat until the solution starts to boil. As the water evaporates (changes from a liquid to a gas) it leaves the flask through the condenser’ as steam.
The condenser has a ‘jacket’ of cold water constantly flowing around its outer section.
This causes the steam to condense back into liquid water.
The water collected in the flask on the right is called the distillate.

Experiment : To separate a mixture of dyes by chromatography.

The solvent will soak up along the paper carrying the dye with it.

The colours in the mixture will travel at different speeds up the paper because some are more soluble in the solvent than others.

Eventually, all the colours will separate from each other.