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LC Biology
LC Biology
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LC Biology

M U S C L O S K E L E T A L - Notes

2017

NAME 2 REGIONS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND STATE THE NUMBER OF BONES FOUND IN EACH.

Cervical -7

Sacrum - 5

WHAT ARE INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS MADE OF AND WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?

Intervertebral discs are Cartilage found in between the bones of the vertebrae.

They act as shock absorbers, reduce friction and retains structural integrity.

NAME THE CELLS THAT BREAK TISSUE DOWN

Osteoclasts

NAME THE CELLS THAT BUILD BONE

Osteoblasts

GIVE 2 FACTORS WHICH CONTINUED RENEWAL OF THE BONE DEPENDS ON

Physical activity

Diet

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

2016

LONG BONES CONTAIN BOTH YELLOW MARROW AND RED MARROW. GIVE A FUNCTION OF... (More)

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LC Biology

All Biology Definitions for Leaving Cert

The Scientific Method

  • Scientific Method is a process of investigation where problems are identified and their explanations are tested by carrying out experiments.
  • Observation : An unbiased, accurate report of an event.
  • Hypothesis : An educated guess based on observations.
  • Experiment : An experiment is designed to test a hypothesis.
  • Data : Consists of measurements, observations/information gathered during an experiment.
  • Replicate : A repeat of an experiment.
  • Control : A comparison used to provide a standard against which the actual experiment can be judged.
  • Theory : A hypothesis that has been supported by different experiments.
  • Principle/Law : A theory that... (More)
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LC Biology

Breathing System Q's & A -

WHY IS HOMEOSTASIS IMPORTANT IN THE BODY

Because we would not survive if conditions were to vary greatly. Conditions are kept at optimum for enzyme activity.

DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF INHALATION.

It is an active process.

  • The diaphragm contracts and flattens, while at the same time the intercostal muscles contract
  • Lifting the ribcage up and out
  • These movements cause an increase in the volume of the thorax cavity
  • Which causes a decrease in pressure which forces air into the lungs

NAME A BREATHING DISORDER

Asthma

STATE A CAUSE AND TREATMENT

cause:It is an allergic reaction to a trigger/ allergen in... (More)

From looking at the past papers about 90% of the marks for Biology can be gained from knowledge of all the definitions and theory. Most questions are not direct definitions but theory questions like "describe the..." and "draw the...". Direct definitions are about 20% of the paper. As the paper is mostly theory based, calculations are quite rare unlike chemistry and physics.

For chemistry on the other hand the marks are more mixed up. I would say about 55 - 60% can be gained from definitions and theory while the rest come from calculations. The first few lab experiment and... (More)