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JC Geography
JC Geography
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Climate Change

  • Climate is patterns of weather conditions in a large area over a long period time.
  • The sun sends out heat and light energy.
  • Some travels through the atmosphere where it is absorbed by the lands and the oceans.
  • The atmosphere is a layer of gases that surrounds the Earth. It protects Earth from the sun's harmful radiation and keeps the planet warm enough for life to exist.
  • Gases in the atmosphere known as greenhouse gases trap some of the heat energy so that it is not too hot during the day and not too cold during the night.
  • Greenhouse gases... (More)
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JC Geography

Dynamic earth

Plates: large slabs of earth's crust 

Plate boundaries: where plates meet

Crust: thin, solid layer all over the surface of the earth.

Mantle: thick layer of molten and semi-molten rock beneath the earth's surface.

Outer core: made of molten, nickel and iron.

Inner core: at the centre of the earth.


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River Erosion

  • The river erodes the landscape using many processes.
  1. The fast moving water breaks and wears away material from the bed and banks of the river. This is known as hydraulic action.
  2. The material that is now being carried along by the river is called its load. The load is thrown against the bed and banks of the river and wears them down. This process is known as abrasion.
  3. The load itself is broken down even more as particles bounce off one another and become smooth and rounded. Attrition is the name of this process.
  4. The water can dissolve some of... (More)
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Key Features of a River

  • Source: place where a river begins.
  • Confluence: point where a river joins a larger one.
  • Estuary: part of the river mouth that is tidal.
  • Delta: a fan-shaped area of land found at the mouth of a river.
  • Mouth: place where the river enters the sea.
  • River basin: the land that water flows across or under on its way to a river.
  • Flood plain: area that gets covered with water when the river floods.
  • Tributary: a stream or river that joins a larger river.