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JC Geography
JC Geography
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These have been caused by many natural factors, including changes in the sun, emissions from volcanoes, variations in Earth's orbit and levels of carbon dioxide. 

The Greenhouse Effect

- The greenhouse effect is the warming of the earth's surface and the air above it caused by gases in the air that trap energy from the sun. The heat-trapping gases are known as greenhouse gases.

During the day, the sun's solar energy penetrates the earths atmosphere. The earths surface then gets warme up. At ight the earths surface cools down, releasing the heat back into the air. Some of the heat,however, gets trapped by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. That is what keeps our earth at an average temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.

However, the greenhouse effect is... (More)

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JC Geography

Features of a Glacial Meltwater


  • An esker is a long, winding ridge of gravel or sand. For example the trim esker system, county Meath.


  1. As the ice melts, large tunnels of meltwater flow in tunnels underneath the ice.
  2. When a river leaves an ice tunnel, it slows down straight away and deposits material at the mouth of the ice tunnel.
  3. As the ice slowly melts back, the deposited material is dropped in the form of a long, narrow ridge of sand and gravel.

Outwash Plain

  • An outwash plain is a flat area of sand and gravel, found in front of a terminal moraine.... (More)
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Climate Change By Natural Causes

Climate change can result from natural processes and factors.

Examples of natural factors include:

  • Changes in the Suns intensity (strenght) e.g sunspots
  • Slow changes in the earths orbit (path) around the sun
  • Volcanic Eruptions

Changes in the Suns Intensity

  • Scientists have identified changes in the amount of energy coming from the sun that is linked to sunspots.
  • Sunspots are black areas that appear from time to time on the surface of the sun.
  • Sunspots occur on an eleven-year cycle where they rise to a peak number and then fall to a minimum number. This is known as a sunspot cycle.... (More)