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JC Geography
JC Geography
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JC Geography
Liya Joseph
Hi My name is Liya I am a 1st year student in Mallow

Types of Rocks

There are 3 types of rocks.

Igneous

  • Igneous is made when magma rises from the mantle.
  • Under the surface ,it slowly cools and hardens.
  • This is known as intrusive rocks .
  • Example Granite .
  • Above the surface , it hits the cool air and hardens .
  • This is known as extrusive rock. Example Basalt.

The next rock is called Sedimentary rock .

  • Rocks on the earth's surface are worn down over time .
  • Some broken pieces of rock make their way down to the sea.
  • They become compressed and cemented and mixed with dead Sea creatures .
  • They form... (More)
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JC Geography
Liya Joseph
Hi My name is Liya I am a 1st year student in Mallow

EARTHQUAKES

  • Earthquakes -sudden shaking of the earth caused by the movement of the crust.
  • Tremors -vibration.
  • Focus- the point under the surface where the earthquake happens.
  • Faultline -the line of two plates.
  • Epicentre - the point on the surface directly above the focus. The earthquake is the strongest here.
  • Seismic waves -waves of tremors.
  • Aftershock- smaller tremors that come after the earthquakes.
  • Seismologist - a person who studies earthquakes
  • Seismographs - an instrument that measures the strength of an earthquake.
  • Richter scale - measures the strength of an earthquake .it goes from 1-8
  • Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) - measures the... (More)
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JC Geography
Liya Joseph
Hi My name is Liya I am a 1st year student in Mallow

Dynamic earth

Pangea - 250 million years ago all the continents were connected  as one large land.

Continental drift - the movement  of continents.

Crust - thin outer layer - made of solid rock .

Plates - the crust is divided into several  sactions called plates .

Plate boundary - where two plates meet.

Mantle - hot molten ( melted) rock called magma.

Outer core  - molten iron and nickel.

Inner core - solid centre . Extremely hot temperature. 

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The Formation of a V-Shaped Valley

  1. The river erodes vertically by hydraulic action. The valley is deepened by vertical erosion.
  2. As the river cuts down, the steep sides are attacked by weathering. This breaks up and loosens the soil and rock.
  3. The loosened material slowly creeps down the slope because of gravity or is washed into the river by rainwater. The river carries it away.
  4. The end result is a steep sided valley that has the shape of the letter V.