Ultra Heat Treated (UHT) – Milk is homogenised and then heated to 132°C for one second. It is then cooled and packaged into sterile containers.

Sterilisation – Milk is homogenised, sealed into bottles/cartons and then heated to 110° C for approximately 30 minutes. It is then cooled.

Spray Drying – Where milk is sprayed into containers of hot air. As the milk droplets fall, the water is evaporated producing a powder which is cooled, packaged and sealed into airtight containers. It is expensive and reconstitutes easily.

Roller Drying – Milk is poured onto heated revolving metal rollers. It is then scraped off, cooled and packaged in airtight containers e.g. dried skimmed milk.

Pasteurisation – The heating of milk to 72°C for 25 seconds to kill pathogenic bacteria. The milk is then cooled rapidly to 10oC.

Homogenisation – The heating of milk to 60°C. It is then forced under pressure through tiny holes. This creates a creamy consistency as the fat droplets are evenly distributed in the milk.

Dehydration – A process of preservation which removes the moisture from milk. The removal of moisture means micro-organisms cannot survive.