Communication: involves the exchange of information

Importance of Good Communication:

  • Gets work done: It would be impossible to run a business without communication. E.g Workers need to communicate in order to complete tasks and assignments
  • Improves coordination: Managers rely on effective communication to co-ordinate tasks around the world.
  • Benefits Industrial Relations: Need to discuss issues with employees before they escalate. If minor problems are left unresolved, they may develop into major ones. 
  • Avoids costly mistakes: May cause Financial or Reputational (Bad PR)
  • Reflects a changing work-environment: Modern workplaces = More Teamwork. Communication is key in empowering workers. It’s a key to building trust, promoting, understanding and motivating staff.

Internal Communications:

  • Management Meeting
  • Staff Meetings
  • Intercoms
  • Intranet
  • Newsletters

External Communications:

  • Letters
  • Telephones
  • Email
  • Fax
  • Websites

Channels of Communication

  • Downward:  ↓ To Subordinates
  • Upward: ↑  To Management
  • Horizontal: ←→ Same Level

Types of Communications:

  • Verbal/Oral: Quick and Direct. No record of it e.g Intercom
  • Written Communication: Letters, Memos, Newsletters, Email. Complex or detailed messages and There is a record of it.
  • Visual Communication: Tend to reinforce a message during oral or written communication. Its effective because it is easy to understand. E.g Graphs, Charts, Pictures


Information and Communications Technology: is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. It is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other.

Applications of ICT 

  • Word Processing: Used for writing letters, agendas etc. E.g Microsoft Word/ Google Drive
  • Database: A computerised filing system; enables the user to store, update and manipulate huge amounts of information. E.g Microsoft Access
  • Mail Merge: Combining word-processing and databases. "Personalised Letters" for clients. A standard letter is printed for each customers. The name and address are stored in the database.
  • Spreadsheets: Used when dealing with accounts and other financial information. E.g Microsoft Excel
  • Internet: Business use it for Market Research, Marketing, Sales (Online Sales) E.g Online Amazon Shopping
  • Videoconferencing: Allows people to interact with other people from around the world using a two way video and audio transmission. E.g Zoom
  • Electron Data Exchange: Transfer Information from companies to other companies on a regular basis. E.g A retailer ordering additional supply of a product due to high sales. 
  • Cloud Computing: To store information in oss-shore locations. minimises the need for expensive hardware. E.g Dropbox/ Drive

Challenges of ICT

  • Infrastructure: High Speed Broadband connection
  • Security: Fear that personal information may be hacked. 
  • Consumer Protection/Lack of Information: Many consumers are unaware of the their legal rights and may be reluctant to purchase online. 


Data Protection Act 1988 and 2003

  • Data Subject: The person whose information is on file
  • Data Controller: They who who have the capacity to store information and have done so. E.g Employers who have details of their employees
  • Data Protection Commissioner: Responsible for enforcing the acts and investigating any complaints. 

Rights of Data Subjects:

  • Right to Access information: Having made a written request, the information must be supplied within 40 days .
  • Right to correct any errors: Be able to change inaccurate information. E.g Qualifications
  • Right to complain: Can complain to the data protection commissioner if there is a breach of these acts
  • Right to compensation: When damage has been suffered due to the misuse of the information held.
  • Right to prevent your data being used for direct marketing purposes.

Obligations of Data Controllers:

  • To obtain information in an honest and fair way.
  • To secure access to the information
  • To provide a copy of information upon request by the data subject
  • Only to use the information for the purposes it was intended to
  • To correct + Update information as required and delete it after use

Role of Data Protection Commissioner:

  • Maintain a list of Data Controllers who are required, with the commissioner
  • Develop codes of Practice
  • Provide information on the Data Protection Acts
  • To investigate any breach of these acts