Communication: involves the exchange of information
Importance of Good Communication:
- Gets work done: It would be impossible to run a business without communication. E.g Workers need to communicate in order to complete tasks and assignments
- Improves coordination: Managers rely on effective communication to co-ordinate tasks around the world.
- Benefits Industrial Relations: Need to discuss issues with employees before they escalate. If minor problems are left unresolved, they may develop into major ones.
- Avoids costly mistakes: May cause Financial or Reputational (Bad PR)
- Reflects a changing work-environment: Modern workplaces = More Teamwork. Communication is key in empowering workers. It’s a key to building trust, promoting, understanding and motivating staff.
- Management Meeting
- Staff Meetings
Channels of Communication
- Downward: ↓ To Subordinates
- Upward: ↑ To Management
- Horizontal: ←→ Same Level
Types of Communications:
- Verbal/Oral: Quick and Direct. No record of it e.g Intercom
- Written Communication: Letters, Memos, Newsletters, Email. Complex or detailed messages and There is a record of it.
- Visual Communication: Tend to reinforce a message during oral or written communication. Its effective because it is easy to understand. E.g Graphs, Charts, Pictures
Information and Communications Technology: is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. It is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other.
Applications of ICT
- Word Processing: Used for writing letters, agendas etc. E.g Microsoft Word/ Google Drive
- Database: A computerised filing system; enables the user to store, update and manipulate huge amounts of information. E.g Microsoft Access
- Mail Merge: Combining word-processing and databases. "Personalised Letters" for clients. A standard letter is printed for each customers. The name and address are stored in the database.
- Spreadsheets: Used when dealing with accounts and other financial information. E.g Microsoft Excel
- Internet: Business use it for Market Research, Marketing, Sales (Online Sales) E.g Online Amazon Shopping
- Videoconferencing: Allows people to interact with other people from around the world using a two way video and audio transmission. E.g Zoom
- Electron Data Exchange: Transfer Information from companies to other companies on a regular basis. E.g A retailer ordering additional supply of a product due to high sales.
- Cloud Computing: To store information in oss-shore locations. minimises the need for expensive hardware. E.g Dropbox/ Drive
Challenges of ICT
- Infrastructure: High Speed Broadband connection
- Security: Fear that personal information may be hacked.
- Consumer Protection/Lack of Information: Many consumers are unaware of the their legal rights and may be reluctant to purchase online.
Data Protection Act 1988 and 2003
- Data Subject: The person whose information is on file
- Data Controller: They who who have the capacity to store information and have done so. E.g Employers who have details of their employees
- Data Protection Commissioner: Responsible for enforcing the acts and investigating any complaints.
Rights of Data Subjects:
- Right to Access information: Having made a written request, the information must be supplied within 40 days .
- Right to correct any errors: Be able to change inaccurate information. E.g Qualifications
- Right to complain: Can complain to the data protection commissioner if there is a breach of these acts
- Right to compensation: When damage has been suffered due to the misuse of the information held.
- Right to prevent your data being used for direct marketing purposes.
Obligations of Data Controllers:
- To obtain information in an honest and fair way.
- To secure access to the information
- To provide a copy of information upon request by the data subject
- Only to use the information for the purposes it was intended to
- To correct + Update information as required and delete it after use
Role of Data Protection Commissioner:
- Maintain a list of Data Controllers who are required, with the commissioner
- Develop codes of Practice
- Provide information on the Data Protection Acts
- To investigate any breach of these acts