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JC Home Economics
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Any notes on nutrients?

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  • The Food Pyramid 

Healthy Eating Guidelines

 Eat less fat

 Eat less sugar

 Eat less salt

 Eat more fruit and veg

 Eat a variety of foods

 Drink more water

 Drink alcohol in moderation

Key Terms

Balanced Diet: Eating the correct amount of foods for what our bodies need.

Classification of the 6 Nutrients

There are six nutrients that our bodies need. These are protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals and water.

Nutrient: A chemical found in food that nourishes the body

Composition: What the nutrients is made up of

Source: A food that contains the nutrient

Function: The job the nutrient has in the body

Recommended Daily Allowance (R.D.A): The amount of each nutrient we should eat each day

Deficiency Disease: An illness that occurs in the body caused by the lack of a nutrient

Classification: Putting things into groups based on something that they have in common.

Macronutrients: Needed by the body in large amounts

They are too big to be absorbed by the body so they must be broken down

Protein, fats and carbohydrates.

Micronutrients: Needed by the body in small amounts

They are small enough to be absorbed by the body once eaten.

Minerals and vitamins The table below has a key terms which you need to know in order to understand the study of nutrients

Why do we eat food?

 Food helps the body to grow.

 Provides the body with energy and warmth

 Protects the body against disease.

Factors which affect our choice of food.

Our Senses

Lifestyle (Family and Friends)

Nutritional Value




Availability (Staple foods/in season).



Structure and Composition Classification

• Proteins are made up of basic units called Amino Acids.

• Amino Acids are small units that join together like beads on necklace.

• They are joined together by peptide links to form chains of protein.

• Each Amino Acid is made up of the elements:

1. Carbon

2. Hydrogen

3. Oxygen

4. Nitrogen

Function Sources

 Growth

 Repair of worn out or damaged cells e.g. healing wounds

 It forms hormones and enzymes


• There are different types of Amino Acids, and some amino acids are

of better quality and therefore more essential in the diet.

• These high quality amino acids are called ESSENTIAL amino acids.

• Proteins are classified according to their quality (i.e. the amount of

essential amino acids they contain).

High Biological Value Protein (HBV)

Low Biological Value Protein (LBV)



Structure and Composition

 Fats are made up of fatty acids and


 These link together to form an Eshaped


 Each molecule of glycerol is attached

to three fatty acids.

 Glycerol and fatty acids contain

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.

Classification and Sources


 Heat and energy

 A layer of fat in the skin insulates our body keeping us


 Delicate organs in the body like the heart and kidneys are

protected by a layer of fat around them. Also helps the

nerves in our body.

 We get fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K from fats

Saturated Fat

Unsaturated Fat

Milk, Cheese, Meat, Butter

Oil, Oily Fish, Nuts, Seeds

How to reduce fat intake in the diet

 Grill instead of frying

 Cut visible fats off meat

 Use low fat foods

 Cut down on fatty foods like chips etc..