- The Food Pyramid
Healthy Eating Guidelines
Eat less fat
Eat less sugar
Eat less salt
Eat more fruit and veg
Eat a variety of foods
Drink more water
Drink alcohol in moderation
Balanced Diet: Eating the correct amount of foods for what our bodies need.
Classification of the 6 Nutrients
There are six nutrients that our bodies need. These are protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals and water.
Nutrient: A chemical found in food that nourishes the body
Composition: What the nutrients is made up of
Source: A food that contains the nutrient
Function: The job the nutrient has in the body
Recommended Daily Allowance (R.D.A): The amount of each nutrient we should eat each day
Deficiency Disease: An illness that occurs in the body caused by the lack of a nutrient
Classification: Putting things into groups based on something that they have in common.
Macronutrients: Needed by the body in large amounts
They are too big to be absorbed by the body so they must be broken down
Protein, fats and carbohydrates.
Micronutrients: Needed by the body in small amounts
They are small enough to be absorbed by the body once eaten.
Minerals and vitamins The table below has a key terms which you need to know in order to understand the study of nutrients
Why do we eat food?
Food helps the body to grow.
Provides the body with energy and warmth
Protects the body against disease.
Factors which affect our choice of food.
Lifestyle (Family and Friends)
Availability (Staple foods/in season).
Structure and Composition Classification
• Proteins are made up of basic units called Amino Acids.
• Amino Acids are small units that join together like beads on necklace.
• They are joined together by peptide links to form chains of protein.
• Each Amino Acid is made up of the elements:
Repair of worn out or damaged cells e.g. healing wounds
It forms hormones and enzymes
• There are different types of Amino Acids, and some amino acids are
of better quality and therefore more essential in the diet.
• These high quality amino acids are called ESSENTIAL amino acids.
• Proteins are classified according to their quality (i.e. the amount of
essential amino acids they contain).
High Biological Value Protein (HBV)
Low Biological Value Protein (LBV)
Structure and Composition
Fats are made up of fatty acids and
These link together to form an Eshaped
Each molecule of glycerol is attached
to three fatty acids.
Glycerol and fatty acids contain
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
Classification and Sources
Heat and energy
A layer of fat in the skin insulates our body keeping us
Delicate organs in the body like the heart and kidneys are
protected by a layer of fat around them. Also helps the
nerves in our body.
We get fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K from fats
Milk, Cheese, Meat, Butter
Oil, Oily Fish, Nuts, Seeds
How to reduce fat intake in the diet
Grill instead of frying
Cut visible fats off meat
Use low fat foods
Cut down on fatty foods like chips etc..