Dot: this is the starting point,  the first mark on a page and the start of a line. A dot can be used in many ways. You can use a dot to add tone, to show shadow, or to create visual texture when you are doing observation drawing. 

Line: a line is a point moving in or through space, like a pathway. It can move in any direction: vertically,  horizontally or diagonally. It can be thick or thin, long or short, wavy, spiralling or broken up. A line can mark the edge (perimeter) of an object or subject you are drawing. 

Shape: 2D shape is a flat space that is enclosed by other elements such as line or tone. 3D shape is a solid shape that has three dimensions: height, width and depth. The 'D' stands for dimensional. Organic shapes appear floating and can be seen in every natural form. 

Colour: colour is the word we use to describe how our eyes see light. Dogs and cats,  for example, see colour in a different way to us. 

Tone: tone is the way that light falls on a 3D object. The parts of the object on which the light is the strongest are highlights, and the darker areas are shadows. 

Texture: texture describes how the surface of somthing feels. It is used to add detail and interest. Visual texture is what we create in 2D art to describe the physical or tactile texture of our 3D world. 

Form: form is the element that is concerned with dimension. When we draw on a page, it is a two-dimensional representation of an object that, in reality, has form, or three dimensions: length, width and depth. We can create form in our two-dimensional work by adding tone. 

Pattern: pattern refers to the repetition of shape, line, colour ect. If a certain item is repeated it can also be referred to as a motif in design terms. Pattern can also be described as the underlying structure of a composition. Two types of pattern: organic pattern and human-made pattern.