Shaft mining: this is the process of drilling vertically into the earth to gain access to minerals beneath the surface.

Environmental impact: underground mining allows companies to dig for coal, lead or zinc deeper in the ground. Large quantities of earth and rock are then brought up from below the surface. Large amounts of dust are also created and can be carried by the wind. These dust particles can cause many health problems for people who breathe them in. 

Economic impacts: the Tara and Zinc mines in county Meath supports 730 jobs directly and many more indirectly. The company pays €38 million in taxes annually.