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LC Chemistry
LC Chemistry
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LC Chemistry

Chemistry Experiment: Flame Tests (Li, Na, K, Ba, Sr & Cu)

To carry out flame tests with salts of lithium, sodium, potassium, barium, strontium and copper.


  1. Light a bunsen burner and adjust it to obtain a blue flame.
  2. Dip the wooden splint in water and add one of the salt to it so it sticks on.
  3. Place the wooden splint over the flame to observe the colour of the flame.
  4. After the salt has finished burning put the flame out and take note of the colour.
  5. Repeat this for all the different salts.


  • LithiumDeep red
  • SodiumYellow
  • PotassiumLilac
  • BariumGreen
  • StrontiumRed... (More)
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LC Chemistry

All Chemistry Definitions to Learn for Leaving Certificate - Higher Level

The Atom

  • Dalton’s Atomic Theory: All matter is made up of indivisible atoms which cannot be created or destroyed.
  • William Crookes discovered the Electron. Cathode ray tube.
  • JJ Thomson determined that electrons were negative. Found E/M ratio.
  • Robert Millikan’s Oil drop experiment discovered size of electron’s charge.
  • Plum Pudding Model: Solid positive sphere with electrons embedded.
  • Rutherford discovered the Nucleus. Fired alpha particles at gold foil. Proton.
  • Chadwick discovered the neutron by firing alpha particles at beryllium.
  • Energy level is the fixed energy value that an electron in an atom may have.
  • Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle states that it is... (More)
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LC Chemistry

Experiment: To prepare ethene and examine its properties

Ethene gas is prepared by dehydrating ethanol (drug found in alcoholic drinks). Ethene is a colourless gas with a sweet smell. It is a insoluble in water but can dissolve in organic solvents.

Main Chemicals required

  • Ethanol – CH3CH2OH
  • Aluminium oxide – a white powder in appearance – Al2O3


  1. Pour small amount of ethanol into a boiling tube.
  2. Push in a piece of glass wool to soaking up all the ethanol.
  3. Set up the apparatus with about 2g of aluminium oxide halfway along the boiling tube.
  4. Heat the aluminium oxide and occasionally heating the ethanol gently. The ethanol then... (More)
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LC Chemistry

Chemistry Terms- Leaving Cert Higher Level Chemistry

  1. Heat of Combustion – The heat produced when one mole of a substance is completely burnt in excess oxygen.
  2. Heat of Formation – The heat change when one mole of a compound in its standard phase is formed from each of its elements in their standard phases.
  3. Heat of Reaction – The heat change when the numbers of moles indicated in the balanced equation for the reaction reacts completely.
  4. Heat of Neutralization – The heat change when one mole of H+ ions from an acid reacts with one mole of OH- ions from a base.
  5. Hess’s Law of Heat... (More)