1. Stratigraphy: The basic idea of stratigraphy is that the oldest layers and finds are at the bottom, and the youngest/latest are at the top.
2. Tree-ring dating or dendrochronology: Each year trees grow a ring of new wood. It is possible to work out when a tree was growing and when it was cut down by studying the rings.
3. Radiocarbon dating: plants and animals take in carbon-14 when they are alive.When they die carbon-14 begins to decay sample such as charcoal, wood, seeds and human and animal bone can be investigated when they are found. The age of... (More)