Black and Tans: Former British soldiers who fought against the IRA/They fought the IRA and got their name from their uniforms (Something more than ‘They fought the IRA’ needed for 2M)

Bloody Sunday: The day when the Squad killed a number of British  agents in Dublin / When the Black and Tans opened  fire on the crowd in Croke Park

“The Squad”: A group of men who carried out killings on the orders of Michael Collins.

Statute of Westminster: Ireland was free to leave the Commonwealth /  Ireland could change or repeal any law made for it at  Westminster / It was used by deValera to justify his dismantling of the Treaty

Economic War: A trade war between Ireland and Britain / A dispute  between Ireland and Britain caused by deValera not  paying the land annuities / When Britain and Ireland  put special tariffs on one another’s imports Ogham: A form of writing/ An alphabet/ Parallel strokes on either side or across a line/ Text carved in stone

Fulachta Fiadh: A cooking site/ Method of cooking.

Crannóg: Man-made Island/ Lake dwelling.

Night of the Long Knives: The killing of leading members of the SA by Hitler/ Destruction of the SA/ The killing of hundreds of Hitler’s opponents.

The Enabling Act: Law that allowed Hitler to rule without a parliament/ It allowed Hitler to rule by decree/ It allowed Hitler to rule as a dictator.

The SS: Hitler’s personal bodyguard/ They ran the concentration camps/ Elite members of the German army/ Security Division/ The Gestapo/ Secret Police.

Nűremberg Laws: Anti-Jewish racial laws/ Marriages between Germans and Jews were forbidden/ Jews were deprived of their German citizenship/ Jews were forced to wear the Star of David (as a symbol of their identity).

Page: The first stage in his training (as a knight)/ A young boy who was sent to another castle to learn basic fighting skills and good manners.

Dubbing: The ceremony at  which the squire became a knight.

Chivalry: (The knight’s) code of conduct/ The qualities [Courage, courtesy, etc.] required of an ideal knight.

Jousting: Combat between two knights on horseback/ (Two) knights with lances charging at each other.

Acerbo Law: A law that allowed the party with the largest vote take two-thirds of the seats in parliament.

Blackshirts: Mussolini’s uniformed followers/ The Squadristi.

Lateran Treaty: An agreement between Mussolini and the Pope/ It created an independent Vatican State.

Rome-Berlin Axis: An alliance with Hitler.

Containment: US policy to stop the spread of Communism.

Marshall Plan: Money provided by the US for the re-building of Europe after the war/ A recovery programme for Europe after the war.

Satellite States: Communist states in Eastern Europe that were linked to the Soviet Union.

Iron Curtain: A term used to describe the spread of Communism in Eastern Europe at the end of the war/ The dividing line between  Communist-controlled Eastern Europe and the countries of Western Europe.

Benelux Union: An (economic) agreement between Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.

ESCS: An agreement by (6) countries to allow for the free movement of coal and steel between them..

CAP: EU policy guaranteeing farmers a fixed price for their produce.

Treaty of Rome, 1957: The treaty that established the EEC/ An agreement by (6) countries for the free movement of people, goods and services between them.

Empire: The foreign lands acquired by various European powers/ A number of states or peoples under the control of a common ruler.

Imperialism: The building up of empires/ European states taking over large parts of the world.

Nationalism: The belief that each race of people should be self-governing.

Decolonisation: Withdrawal of (European) countries from former colonies.

Propaganda: Spreading information to promote or damage a government, or group or belief/ The information used to promote or damage a government, group or belief

Archive: Organised collection of documents or photographs or films etc./ A place where such collections are stored

Bias: One-sidedness [in dealing with historical issues]

Microliths: Tiny pieces of flint [used for arrowheads or tools]

Saddle stone: A quern/ which was used for grinding corn

Capstone: Large stone which tops off a dolmen

Maginot Line: French defence line on the Franco-German border/Fortifications built by France to prevent an attack by Germany

Vichy France: Pro-German French government (based at Vichy)/ The part of France controlled by the pro-German French government  13

Afrika Korps: German troops serving in North Africa/ Rommel’s troops

Lebensraum: Land in Eastern Europe that Germany would take over

Chapter house: (Monks’) meeting house/ Room to discuss monastic business/ Room in which abbot was elected

Cloisters: Where monks walked/ where novices were taught.

Refectory: Dining-room/ where monks ate their meals together

Torc: A type of necklace/ Jewellery

Aos Dána: People who had special skills

Demesne: The portion of the land that the lord kept for his own use 

Serf: A farm worker at the bottom of the social scale/ A semi-slave on the manor/ The person who worked the lord’s fields, etc.

Tithe: (One-tenth of) worker’s produce that was given to the priest

Pottage: (Thick) soup or stew

Heresy: Belief or practice contrary to (Catholic) church teaching

Nepotism: The giving of (church) positions to one’s relatives.

Simony: Buying/selling of church privileges (e.g. pardons), church offices or religious objects.

Pluralism: Holding of more than one (church) office at a time

Primary source: First-hand evidence / Evidence from the period being studied

Charter: A royal document granting certain rights

Curfew: Time to put out the fire [Medieval meaning of the term]

Pillory: Framework to restrain someone for public punishment

Church records: They contain details of births and marriages

School roll books: They are a record of the numbers, sex and ages of those attending a particular school.

Census: Provide information on population changes over time / Contain details on such social issues as housing, literacy etc.

Diaries: Can contain information on such things as dress, pastimes, food, communications, transport and education / Can show how different events impacted on people’s everyday lives.

Fief: Grant of land (made by the king) / The land held by a vassal.

Manor: A village and its farmland / A very large farm / The amount of land granted by the king for one knight-service.

Vassal: Person who received a fief from his lord or king / Person who provided soldiers to fight for the lord or king.

Sfumato: Allowing tones or colours to shade gradually into each other / Making subjects blend in with the background / Blurring of the outlines of figures

Perspective: Three-dimensional paintings / Giving an impression of depth.

Common market: The abolition of tariffs within the EEC / The original six-member EEC / A former name for the EU.

Peaceful co-existence: Countries with different ideologies getting along together / A thaw in the cold war.

Gerrymander: The rigging of constituency boundaries by Unionists

Blueshirts: Protected Cumann na nGaedheal from IRA attacks / Army Comrades’ Association / An organisation for ex-Free State army members.

Rationing: War-time restrictions on the amount of food, fuel, etc.. an individual or family could get.

B specials: A part-time police force in Northern Ireland / An anti-Nationalist police force

Keep : the main tower or stronghold or building of a castle / the building in the castle where the lord and lady lived.

Moat: a water-filled ditch around a castle.

Portcullis: a strong grating protecting the entrance of the castle that was raised to allow people to enter or leave.

Turret : a small tower on the outer walls of the castle or on the top of the keep

Portolan charts: plotting course / harbour-finding /sea maps

Astrolabe : calculating latitude / finding one’s position

Log and Line : calculating speed / distance travelled by the ship

Caravels : the ships used in the voyages.

Lazy-beds : ridges where potatoes were grown / method of growing potatoes

Middleman: a tenant who rented some of his land to smaller farmers.

Eviction : being thrown out of one’s land and/or home.

Conacre : land rented out for a season to grow potatoes / rented potato  ground / land rented for a season

Cottier : a labourer who worked for a farmer in return for the use of a small plot of land / a farm labourer who had just a tiny piece of land

The Anglo-Irish Treaty: Agreement between Britain and Ireland that ended the war of Independence / Agreement that gave us independence / Treaty signed by Collins and Griffith / Any Article of the Treaty

Flying Columns: IRA (Volunteer) units using hit-and-run tactics / Groups of full-time IRA fighters.

Auxiliaries: Former British army officers recruited to fight the rebels / A

The Government of Ireland Act: It set up two parliaments in Ireland / It created a separate Northern Ireland state division of the Police

The Squad: A team of men under Michael Collins who killed British agents / Assassins who worked for Collins