- Compound: two or more different elements combined together chemically
- Octet Rule: when bonding occurs, atoms tend to reach an electron arrangement with 8 electrons in the outermost energy level
- Ion: a charged atom or group of atoms
- Ionic bonding: the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. Formed by the complete transfer of an electron from one atom to another
- molecule: a group of atoms joined together, the smallest particle of an element with can exist independently
- valency: the number of atoms of hydrogen (or any monovalent element) with which each atom of the element combines
- Transition... (More)
Join your FREE online community of students & teachers
- Dalton’s Atomic Theory: All matter is made up of indivisible atoms which cannot be created or destroyed.
- William Crookes discovered the Electron. Cathode ray tube.
- JJ Thomson determined that electrons were negative. Found E/M ratio.
- Robert Millikan’s Oil drop experiment discovered size of electron’s charge.
- Plum Pudding Model: Solid positive sphere with electrons embedded.
- Rutherford discovered the Nucleus. Fired alpha particles at gold foil. Proton.
- Chadwick discovered the neutron by firing alpha particles at beryllium.
- Energy level is the fixed energy value that an electron in an atom may have.
- Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle states that it is... (More)
To carry out flame tests with salts of lithium, sodium, potassium, barium, strontium and copper.
- Light a bunsen burner and adjust it to obtain a blue flame.
- Dip the wooden splint in water and add one of the salt to it so it sticks on.
- Place the wooden splint over the flame to observe the colour of the flame.
- After the salt has finished burning put the flame out and take note of the colour.
- Repeat this for all the different salts.
- Lithium – Deep red
- Sodium – Yellow
- Potassium – Lilac
- Barium – Green
- Strontium – Red... (More)
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon containing compounds.
A hydrocarbon is a substance that contains only carbon and hydrogen.
There are three main hydrocarbons on the course – alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.
A homologous series is a series of compounds:
- of similar chemical type.
- that show gradual change in their physical properties.
- all are prepared in a similar way.
- have a common general formula
- differ one from the next by a
The first homologous series we deal with is calles the alkanes (The ending tells us the chemical family).
Structural isomers... (More)