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JC History
JC History

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JC History

The American War of Independence


Britain wanted to tax the colonists for the 7 Years War with the French and Indians.

No Taxation without Representation’ and the Sons of Liberty (attacked collectors).

The Navigation Acts (American exports had to go to Britain and on British ships.

The Boston Massacre (5 demonstrators shot by British soldiers)

The Boston Tea Party

British killed 8 in Lexington on their way to get arms in Concorde. But Paul Revere had warned the Americans and they ambushed and shot 273.

The Continental Congress made Washington commander-in-chief and passed the Declaration of Independence.

The Armies

  • Britain’s advantages: full... (More)
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JC History

The Famine


Most landlords protestant. Many absentee. Gale day (landlord’s agent). Large farmers (30 acres +). Sublet to small farmers and cottiers. Spailpeens were wandering labourers.

Country divided into Poor Law Unions and each had a workhouse. Only the really badly off would go there (families split up, like prison).


  1. Rise in population
  2. Subdivision
  3. Dependence on the potato
  4. The Blight

What was done

  1. 1845 Peel’s government bought maize (Indian corn) and set up Public Works Schemes.
  2. 1846 Russel’s liberal government did not want to interfere and abandoned the above.
  3. Soup kitchens were set up by the... (More)
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The United Irishmen And The 1798 Rebellion

Background and causes

Irish Parliament controlled by Protestant Ascendancy (C of I only 15% and most of the land)
Penal laws left Catholics poor and uneducated.

Tithes still had to be paid.

The influence of the American and French revolutions

The Society of United Irishmen

Wolfe Tone (Dublin, Anglican Trinity barrister admired French Rev)

1791 Tone and Belfast Presbyterians formed the UI

Aim: Catholic and Protestant together would end British interference in Ireland

1793 War with France. British Gov afraid of Ireland. The UI was banned. Now a rebellion and a republic was the only way.

Tone escaped to... (More)

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The Causes of the Renaissance

The fall of Constantinople in 1453

Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. It was captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Many Greek scholars fled to Italy. They brought priceless ancient Greek and Roman manuscripts with them. These books were full of ideas from the ancient world which Italians had never seen.

Wealth from Trade

Italy's position in the middle of the Mediterranean meant that it had grown rich on trade in goods coming overland from the East, such as silks and spices. These merchants wanted to spend their money on works of art and architecture to... (More)