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JC Geography
JC Geography

The Greenhouse Effect

- The greenhouse effect is the warming of the earth's surface and the air above it caused by gases in the air that trap energy from the sun. The heat-trapping gases are known as greenhouse gases.

During the day, the sun's solar energy penetrates the earths atmosphere. The earths surface then gets warme up. At ight the earths surface cools down, releasing the heat back into the air. Some of the heat,however, gets trapped by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. That is what keeps our earth at an average temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.

However, the greenhouse effect is... (More)

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JC Geography

Climate Change By Natural Causes

Climate change can result from natural processes and factors.

Examples of natural factors include:

  • Changes in the Suns intensity (strenght) e.g sunspots
  • Slow changes in the earths orbit (path) around the sun
  • Volcanic Eruptions

Changes in the Suns Intensity

  • Scientists have identified changes in the amount of energy coming from the sun that is linked to sunspots.
  • Sunspots are black areas that appear from time to time on the surface of the sun.
  • Sunspots occur on an eleven-year cycle where they rise to a peak number and then fall to a minimum number. This is known as a sunspot cycle.... (More)
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JC Geography

River Erosion

  • The river erodes the landscape using many processes.
  1. The fast moving water breaks and wears away material from the bed and banks of the river. This is known as hydraulic action.
  2. The material that is now being carried along by the river is called its load. The load is thrown against the bed and banks of the river and wears them down. This process is known as abrasion.
  3. The load itself is broken down even more as particles bounce off one another and become smooth and rounded. Attrition is the name of this process.
  4. The water can dissolve some of... (More)
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JC Geography

Dynamic earth

Plates: large slabs of earth's crust 

Plate boundaries: where plates meet

Crust: thin, solid layer all over the surface of the earth.

Mantle: thick layer of molten and semi-molten rock beneath the earth's surface.

Outer core: made of molten, nickel and iron.

Inner core: at the centre of the earth.